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    Income tax departmentThere have been several cases of collusion of officials of the income tax department of India for preferential tax treatment and relaxed prosecutions in exchange for bribesPreferential award of mineralIn early August 2011, an iron ore mining scandal became a media focus in India. In September 2011, Janardhana Reddy – an elected member of Karnataka’s legislative assembly – was arrested on charges of corruption and illegal mining of iron ore in his home state of Karnataka. It was alleged that his company received preferential allotment of resources, organised and exported billions of dollars worth of iron ore to China in recent years, without paying any royalty to the state government exchequer of Karnataka or the central government of India, and these Chinese companies made payment to shell companies controlled by Reddy and registered in Caribbean and north Atlantic tax havens. It was also alleged that corrupt government officials cooperated with Reddy, starting from government officials in charge of regulating mining to government officials in charge of regulating port facilities and shipping. These officials received monthly bribes in exchange for enabling the illegal export of illegally mined iron ore to China. Such scandals have led to a demand in India for consensually driven action plan to eradicate the piracy of India’s mineral resources by an illegal-political-corrupt government officials-business nexus, removal of incentives for illegal mining, creation of incentives for legal mining and domestic use of iron ore and steel manufacturing. corruption in India is a major issue and adversely affects its economy.IAS officers who have worked on to put up a stronghold against the illegal mining mafia have faced severe backlashes from the government in direct and indirect ways in the past. Most recent and glaring example of this is the suspension of the IAS officer Durga Shakti Nagpal in UP after her strong response to illegal sand mining mafia in the corruption riddled state.Driver Licensing A study conducted between 2004 and 2005 found that India’s driver licensing procedure was a hugely distorted bureaucratic process and allows drivers to be licensed despite their low driving ability through promoting the usage of agents. Individuals with high willingness to pay make a significant payment above the official fee and most of these extra payments are made to agents, who act as an intermediary between bureaucrats and applicants. The average licensee paid Rs 1080, approximately 2.5 times the official fee of Rs 450, in order to obtain a license. On average, those who hired agents had a lower driving ability, with agents helping unqualified drivers obtain licenses and bypass the legally required driving examination. Among the surveyed individuals, approximately 60% of the license holders did not take the licensing exam and 54% of those license holders failed an independent driving test. Agents are the channels of inefficient corruption in this bureaucratic driver licensing system, facilitating access to licenses among those who are unqualified to drive. Some of the failures of this licensing system are caused by corrupt bureaucrats who collaborate with agents by creating additional barriers within the system against those who did not hire agents.Claimed trends Professor Bibek
    Debroy and Laveesh Bhandari claim in their book Corruption in India: The DNA and RNA that the public officials in India may be cornering as much as Rs.921.22 billion ($18.42 billion), or 1.26 per cent of the GDP, through corruption. The book claims most bribery is in the transport industry, real estate and government delivered services. Bribery and corruption are pervasive, but some sectors tend to witness a relatively higher degree of such instances. A 2013 EY Study reports following sectors, perceived as the most vulnerable to corruption: Infrastructure & Real Estate, Metals & Mining, Aerospace & Defense, Power & Utilities. There are a range of specific factors that make a sector more susceptible to bribery and corruption risks than others. Factors like high use of middlemen, large value contracts, liasioning activities etc drive the depth, volume and frequency of corrupt practices in vulnerable sectors